Science production through the use of knowledge management has been identified as a top priority for development in almost any society while scientific development is considered as a prerequisite to development in various sectors, which can consequently lead to economic prosperity and social welfare. I.R.Iran vision plan 2025 targets the first economic and scientific ranking in the region. A closer study of scientific products and science ranking of countries has provided a suitable tool for proper policy-making and planning as well as better understanding of the past situation. Analysis of scientific products and science ranking of countries has also paved the ground for purposeful scientific practices and research priorities besides contributions to recognition of weaknesses and insufficiencies in science production. Additionally, the environmental performance index of countries is an indicative of countries’ commitment to sustainable development and human life. Meanwhile, countries with lower science ranking will doubtlessly fail to manage ecological issues effectively. This study makes a comparison of science ranking and environmental performance index among Persian Gulf countries. The results show that Iran and Saudi Arabia, despite their first and second place, respectively, in science ranking in the region, have not been able to fully utilize this capacity for effective protection and management of the environment. In contrast, countries such as Kuwait and Bahrain, despite their lower science ranking, at the bottom of the table, have attained higher values with regard to environmental performance index than Iran and Saudi Arabia thanks to their proper planning and policy-making practices.