Document Type : Reviews


Ph.D. Candidate, Knowledge and Information Science, Management and Economic Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


Focusing on knowledge sharing and knowledge application is one of the components of knowledge management, which is to reveal the hidden knowledge of individuals and transfer it for use and application to other people. Moving towards knowledge-based in today's world and achieving competitive advantage in organizations, knowledge sharing has emerged as an important category. On the other hand, the application of knowledge is considered one of the main factors of competitive advantage in various enterprises, organizations, and companies. The application of knowledge is the process of knowledge sharing in the production of goods and services and organizational actions to create value. An organization that can institutionalize knowledge in different departments and among its employees and uses the knowledge created and the experiences of its employees properly will be able to maintain or ascend its position in today's developing world.
The present study examines the concepts of knowledge, knowledge sharing, factors affecting sharing, knowledge application, and the relationship between knowledge sharing and application. This article is a library Research Method and descriptive.


Abrahamson, D. E., & Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2014). Impediments to information and knowledge sharing within policing: A study of three Canadian policing organizations. Sage open, 4(1), 2158244013519363.
 Agyemang, F. G., & Boateng, H. (2019). Tacit knowledge transfers from a master to an apprentice among hairdressers. Education+ Training.
Bock, G. W., Zmud, R. W., Kim, Y. G., & Lee, J. N. (2005). Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: Examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate. MIS quarterly, 87-111.
 Cabrera, E. F. & Cabrera, A. (2005). Fostering knowledge sharing through people management practices. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16 (5). 720–735.
Cantner, U., Joel, K., & Schmidt, T. (2011). The effects of knowledge management on innovative success–An empirical analysis of German firms. Research policy, 40(10), 1453-1462.
Castaneda, D. I., & Cuellar, S. (2020). Knowledge sharing and innovation: A systematic review. Knowledge and Process Management, 27(3), 159-173.
Cheng, M. Y., Ho, J. S. Y., & Lau, P. M. (2009). Knowledge sharing in academic institutions: A study of Multimedia University Malaysia. Electronic Journal of knowledge management, 7(3).
Choi, B., Poon, S. K., & Davis, J. G. (2008). Effects of knowledge management strategy on organizational performance: A complementarity theory-based approach. Omega, 36(2), 235-251.
Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Harvard Business Press.
 Disterer, G. (2001, January). Individual and social barriers to knowledge transfer. In Proceedings of the 34th annual Hawaii international conference on system sciences (pp. 7-pp). IEEE.
Fengjie, A., Fei, Q., & Xin, C. (2004, September). Knowledge sharing and web-based knowledge-sharing platform. In IEEE International Conference on E-commerce Technology for Dynamic E-business (pp. 278-281). IEEE.
 Grant, R. M. (1996). Toward a knowledge‐based theory of the firm. Strategic management journal, 17(S2), 109-122.
Gunsel, A., Siachou, E., & Acar, A. Z. (2011). Knowledge management and learning capability to enhance organizational innovativeness. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 880-888.
Haas, M. R., & Hansen, M. T. (2007). Different knowledge, different benefits: Toward a productivity perspective on knowledge sharing in organizations. Strategic management journal, 28(11), 1133-1153.
 Hadjipavlis, A. (2012). Knowledge sharing amongst librarians in Cypriot libraries.
 Hashemzadeh, M., Ro’yayi, H., & Majidifard, M. (2013). Application of knowledge in the library of Urmia university Urmia medical science university by combined pattern. Ministry of science, research and technology-Birjand university-faculty of education and psychology. [Persian].
 Huang, T. T., Chen, L., & Stewart, R. A. (2010). The moderating effect of knowledge sharing on the relationship between manufacturing activities and business performance. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 8, 285-306.
Lin, T. C., Wu, S., & Lu, C. T. (2012). Exploring the affect factors of knowledge sharing behavior: The relations model theory perspective. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(1), 751-764.
 Luo, H. (2009, November). Determinants of knowledge sharing in university academic team. In 2009 Second International Symposium on Knowledge Acquisition and Modeling (Vol. 1, pp. 260-263). IEEE.
Massa, S., & Testa, S. (2009). A knowledge management approach to organizational competitive advantage: Evidence from the food sector. European Management Journal, 27(2), 129-141.
McLaughlin, S., Paton, R. A., & Macbeth, D. K. (2008). Barrier impact on organizational learning within complex organizations. Journal of knowledge management.
McNeish, J., & Mann, I. J. S. (2010). Knowledge sharing and trust in organizations. IUP Journal of Knowledge Management, 8 (1 & 2).
Nelson, K. M., & Cooprider, J. G. (1996). The contribution of shared knowledge to IS group performance. MIS quarterly, 409-432.
 Nonaka, I., o Nonaka, I., Ikujiro, N., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation (Vol. 105). OUP USA.
Paulin, D., & Suneson, K. (2015). Knowledge transfer, knowledge sharing and knowledge barriers–three blurry terms in KM. Leading Issues in Knowledge Management, 2(2), 73.
Pei, N. S. (2008). Enhancing knowledge creation in organizations. Communications of the IBIMA, 3(2), 1-6.
 Qelichlee, B., & Rajabi-Sharabadi, A. (2014). A study of knowledge creation, innovation based on Organizational agility. Industrial Management Landscape. 16, 98-116. [Persian].
Shen, S., & Yang, Y. (2017, July). Research on Tacit Knowledge Management Strategies in Library Information Consulting Service. In 2017 2nd International Conference on Politics, Economics and Law (ICPEL 2017) (pp. 266-269). Atlantis Press.
Singh, S. K., Gupta, S., Busso, D., & Kamboj, S. (2021). Top management knowledge value, knowledge sharing practices, open innovation and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 128, 788-798.
Tangaraja, G., Mohd Rasdi, R., Abu Samah, B., & Ismail, M. (2016). Knowledge sharing is knowledge transfer: a misconception in the literature. Journal of knowledge management, 20(4), 653-670.
Vajjhala, N. R. (2013). Key barriers to knowledge sharing in medium-sized enterprises in transition economies. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(14).
Van Den Hooff, B., Schouten, A. P., & Simonovski, S. (2012). What one feels and what one knows: the influence of emotions on attitudes and intentions towards knowledge sharing. Journal of knowledge management, 16(1), 148-158.
Van Wijk, R., Jansen, J. J., & Lyles, M. A. (2008). Inter‐and intra‐organizational knowledge transfer: a meta‐analytic review and assessment of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of management studies, 45(4), 830-853.
Wickramasinghe, N. (Ed.). (2007). Knowledge-based enterprise: Theories and fundamentals: Theories and fundamentals. Igi Global.
Zhang, X., De Pablos, P. O., & Xu, Q. (2014). Culture effects on the knowledge sharing in multi-national virtual classes: A mixed method. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 491-498.
Zimmermann, A., Oshri, I., Lioliou, E., & Gerbasi, A. (2018). Sourcing in or out: Implications for social capital and knowledge sharing. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 27(1), 82-100.