Document Type : Original Research Manuscripts


1 PhD student, department of educational management, Khorramabad branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad, Iran.

2 Department of business management, Khorramabad branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad, Iran.

3 department of educational management,Khorramabad branch,Islamic azad university,Khorramabad,iran


This research aims to develop an entrepreneurship ecosystem model within a university, utilizing a knowledge-oriented approach. The role of universities in ensuring the success of knowledge and entrepreneurship goes beyond knowledge transfer. Ultimately, they contribute to the creation of a knowledge-based entrepreneurship ecosystem.
Therefore, experts' opinions were used to identify the indicators, components, and dimensions of the entrepreneurship ecosystem of Azad University. This was done by examining the existing theoretical foundations and utilizing the theme analysis method of Brown and Clark in the ATLAS TI software. In this regard, interviews were conducted with 20 experts from the university's entrepreneurship ecosystem until theoretical saturation was reached. The text of the interviews was then analyzed using coding. According to the systematic model, eight main categories were identified. These clusters include "structural factors (structure and government)", "entrepreneurial fields (environmental factors, management factors)", "entrepreneurial consequences (development and transfer of entrepreneurship, technological entrepreneurship)", "educational and cultural factors (educational factors, cultural factors, scientific and technological factors)", and "policymaking and planning (government policymaking, leadership policymaking)". Knowledge-based entrepreneurship is faced with a complex set of components that create its knowledge-oriented ecosystem. So that each dimension of this sphere is integrated into both the internal components of the university and the higher education system, as well as the external components and subsystems of society.


Main Subjects

  1. Ahmad, N. H., Halim, H. A., Ramayah, T., Popa, S., & Papa, A. (2018). The ecosystem of entrepreneurial university: the case of higher education in a developing country. International Journal of Technology Management, 78, 52-69.
  2. Ali, I., Ali, M., & Badghish, S. (2019). Symmetric and asymmetric modeling of entrepreneurial ecosystem in developing entrepreneurial intentions among female university students in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship.
  3. Audretsch, D. B., & Belitski, M. (2022). A strategic alignment framework for the entrepreneurial university. Industry and Innovation, 29(2), 285-309.
  4. Autio, E., Kenney, M., Mustar, P., Siegel, D., & Wright, M. (2014). Entrepreneurial innovation: The importance of context. Research policy, 43(7), 1097-1108.
  5. Badzińska, E. (2021). Providing a Nurturing Environment for Start-up Incubation: An Explorative Study of a University-based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem. European Research Studies, 24, 15-29.
  6. Bagchi-Sen, S., Baines, N., & Lawton-Smith, H. (2020) Characteristics and outputs of university spin-offs in the United Kingdom. International Regional Science Review Scholar
  7. Baharestan, O., zare, H., mirghafouri, H., & zanjirchi, M. (2023). Applying the hybrid approach to provide the excellence model of reproductive companies in the context of academic entrepreneurship ecosystem. Public Policy In Administration, (), -. doi: 10.30495/ijpa.2022.69712.11009
  8. Boh, W. F., De-Haan, U., & Strom, R. (2016) University technology transfer through entrepreneurship: Faculty and students in spinoffs. The Journal of Technology Transfer41, 661–669.
  9. Compagnucci, L. and Spigarelli, F. (2020) The Third Mission of the university: A systematic literature review on potentials and constraints. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 161, 1–30.
  10. Coral, M.A., & Bernuy, A.E. (2022). Challenges in the Digital Transformation Processes in Higher Education Institutions and Universities. International Journal of Information Technologies and Systems Approach (IJITSA), 15(1), 1-14.
  11. Davari, A., Sefidbari, L., & Baghersad, V. (2016), factors of Iran's entrepreneurial ecosystem based on Eisenberg's model, Entrepreneurial Development, 10(1): 100-120. [in Persian]
  12. Dutta, S., Lanvin, B., León, L. R., & Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2021). Global Innovation Index 2021. Tracking Innovation through the COVID-19 Crisis?
  13. Elia, G., Margherita, A., & Passiante, G. (2020). Digital entrepreneurship ecosystem: How digital technologies and collective intelligence are reshaping the entrepreneurial process. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 150, 119791. ‌
  14. Enetzari, Y. (2018). The requirements for the development of the entrepreneurial ecosystem of Banyan University in Iran. Research and Planning in Higher Education, 25(1), 25-1. SID. [in Persian]
  15. Ezzati R., Sakhdari, K., & Musa Khani, M. (2022). Organizational readiness for commercialization of academic knowledge based on entrepreneurial ecosystem: development of measure and empirical test. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 28 (1): 65-92. [in Persian]
  16. Giuri, P., Munari, F., Scandura, A., & Toschi, L. (2019) The strategic orientation of universities in knowledge transfer activities. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 138, 261–278.
  17. Gubbins, M., Harrington, D., & Hines, P. (2020). Social support for academic entrepreneurship: definition and conceptual framework. Journal of Management Development.
  18. Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., & Gajón, E. (2020). Entrepreneurial university ecosystems and graduates' career patterns: do entrepreneurship education programmes and university business incubators matter? Journal of Management Development.
  19. Hermanto, B., &amli; Suryanto, S.E. (2017). Entrelireneurshili ecosystem liolicy in Indonesia. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences8(1), 110-115.
  20. Hsieh, R. M., & Kelley, D. (2020). A study of key indicators of development for universitybased entrepreneurship ecosystems in Taiwan. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 10(2).
  21. Jack, S. L., & Anderson, A. R. (1999). Entrepreneurship education within the enterprise culture: producing reflective practitioners. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 5(3), 110-125.
  22. Jame Bozorgi, M. J., & meigounpoory, M. R. (2023). Designing a Model for Developing a University Entrepreneurial Ecosystem with a Cultural Approach in Iran. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, (), -. doi: 10.22059/ijaedr.2023.349112.669181
  23. Kamel, S. (2022). The Influence of Entrepreneurship on the Arab Cultures and Economies: Reflections from Egypt’s Entrepreneurial Journey. In Entrepreneurship and Social Entrepreneurship in the MENA Region (pp. 255-279). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
  24. Lahikainen, K. (2020). Understanding the emergence of the university-based entrepreneurial ecosystem: comparing the university and company actor’s perspectives. In Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Ecosystems. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  25. Lenzer, J., & Kulczakowicz, P. (2021) Fueling spin-offs: Case studies of university-based technology start-up funding. Technology and Innovation, 22, 1–13.
  26. Mack, E., & Mayer, H. (2016). The evolutionary dynamics of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Urban studies, 53(10), 2118-2133.
  27. Marcolongo, M. (2017). Academic entrepreneurship: How to bring your scientific discovery to a successful commercial product. John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  28. Meoli, M. and Vismara, S. (2016). University support and the creation of technology and non-technology academic spin-offs. Small Business Economics, 47, 2: 345–362
  29. Meyer, M. H., Lee, C., Kelley, D., & Collier, G. (2020). An Assessment and Planning Methodology for University-Based: Entrepreneurship Ecosystems. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 29(2), 259-292.
  30. Mohammadpour, S. & Salarzahi, H. (2019), studying the entrepreneurial ecosystem of innovative universities in the world, Innovation Ecosystem Quarterly, 1(3).
  31. Mohgar, A., Mohammadi, M., Mokhtarzadeh, N., & Shahidipour, R. (2019). the conceptual framework of the formation of entrepreneurship ecosystems of Tehran University, Innovation Management, 8(4), 33-60.[in Persian]
  32. Mousavi, H., Salehi Omran, A., Mousavi, M., & Farastkhah, M. (2018). Identifying obstacles to the development of the entrepreneurial university ecosystem, Marine Science Education Quarterly, 6(4), 35-51.[in Persian]
  33. Nanni, A. (2019). Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation, and educational entrepreneurship. วารสาร สห ศาสตร์, 19(1), 184-209.‌
  34. Ncanywa, T., & Dyantyi, N. (2022). Can enabling entrepreneurship ecosystem improve commercialization of research in South African Higher Education Institutions?. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478)11(8), 304–311.
  35. Noormohammadi Najafabadi, R., Karimi, A., & Jamshidi, A. (1401). Identifying effective academic factors in creating a regional entrepreneurship ecosystem - the study of Azad universities in Isfahan province. Policy of Science and Technology F 12: 84-106. [in Persian]
  36. Novela, S., Syarief, R., & Arkeman, Y. (2021). Building institutional model of entrepreneurial university. International Journal of Management (IJM), 12(1).
  37. Panahi, S., Chelehnia, N., & Soleimanpour, S. (2022). Knowledge Commercialization in Iran University of Medical Sciences: Faculty Members' Viewpoints. International Journal of Information Science and Management (IJISM), 20(1).‌
  38. Prokop, D. (2022). The Composition of University Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Academic Entrepreneurship: A UK Study. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 19: 225-250.
  39. Radko, N., Belitski, M., & Kalyuzhnova, Y. (2022). Conceptualising the entrepreneurial university: the stakeholder approach. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 1- 90.
  40. Secundo, G., Mele, G., Del Vecchio, P., & Degennaro, G. (2021). Knowledge spillover creation in university-based entrepreneurial ecosystem: the role of the Italian “Contamination Labs”. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 19(1), 137-151
  41. Simmons, S. A., & Hornsby, J. S. (2014). Academic entrepreneurship: A stage based model. In Academic Entrepreneurship: Creating an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (Vol. 16, pp. 37-65). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  42. Sun, C., Li, C., & Zhang, J. (2020). Evaluation on Symbiotic Performance of Regional Technological Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control (ICMIC2019) (pp. 401-411). Springer Singapore.
  43. Theodoraki, C., & Catanzaro, A. (2022). Widening the borders of entrepreneurial ecosystem through the international lens. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 47(2), 383-406.
  44. Vazifeh Dolatabad, R., Meigounpoory, M., & Irajpour, A. (2022). Factors Affecting the Formation of the Technology-based Academic Entrepreneurship Ecosystem (Case study: Technical Faculties of the University of Tehran). Industrial Management Journal14(3), 391-420. doi: 10.22059/imj.2022.346244.1007965
  45. Wang, X., Sun, X., Liu, S., & Mu, C. (2021). A Preliminary Exploration of Factors Affecting a University Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. Frontiers in Psychology, 4132.
  46. Weerasekara, S., & Bhanugopan, R. (2022). The impact of entrepreneurs’ decision-making style on SMEs’ financial performance. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies.